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Health

WHY person is having too much pale eyes with dark urine?

Pale  eyes is a very common symptom or a disease, but some time it is an alarming sign of some dangerous disease. If some one has eye infection or if some one is lethargic or tired for any reason, he may get  pale eyes. But on the other hand pale eyes also indicate some of the major problem that our most of the population is facing like hepatitis, jaundice blood cancers and liver diseases

For better understanding of the reasons first one should be aware of following terms described below.
LIVER: Body’s vital organ present at right side of abdomen, provide nutrients,
maintain blood sugar, remove toxins.

INFLAMMATION: Redness, swelling, pain and feeling of heat in any specific area of body. It is an protective reaction against infections or toxins.

lets discuss hepatitis in detail.

HEPATITIS:

Hepatitis means inflammation of liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus.

There are other possible types of hepatitis.

These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

The five main viral classifications of hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of viral hepatitis.

CAUSES OF HEPATITIS:

Hepatitis A is the result of an infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV).

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis B. This is often an most common chronic condition.

Hepatitis C comes from the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is among the most common bloodborne viral infections.

Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis.

Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease that results from exposure to the hepatitis E virus (HEV).

ACUTE HEPATITIS:

If hepatitis resolves within six months it is known as acute hepatitis and it resolves on its own.

CHRONIC HEPATITIS:

If hepatitis lasts longer then six months it is known as chronic hepatitis, if progress it causes liver diseases like liver cancers.

CAUSES OF NON INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS:

ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS:

Excessive intake of alcohol leads to liver damage, resulting in hepatitis.

TOXINS AND DRUG INDUCED HEPATITIS:

Medications and toxins can cause liver injury ,cell damage, damage of cell metabolism leading to structural changes.

NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE:

People with metabolic
Syndrome (group of conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes), obesity (abnormal or excessive fat
accumulation), diabetes(disease characterised by elevated levels of blood glucose or blood sugar), which progresses to fatty liver, liver cell death and liver inflammation.

AUTOIMMUNE:

Caused by abnormal immune response against liver cells.

ISCHEMIC HEPATITIS:

This condition is a result of reduced blood flow to the
liver mostly occur in shock, heart failure, or vascular insufficiency

Can hepatitis spread from one person to other?

  • Hepatitis A and E spread through contaminated(impure) food and water.
  • Hepatitis B is transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth. It is mainly sexually transmitted.
  • hepatitis C is transmitted through infected blood (infected needle sharing).
  • Hepatitis A, B and D are preventable.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Jaundice (yellowish discoloration of skin and white part of eyes)
  • Poor appetite
  • Vomiting (throw up)
  • Diarrhea (loose, watery stools two or three times a day)
  • Abdominal pain
  • fatigue
  • flu-like symptoms
  • dark urine
  • pale stool
  • unexplained weight loss
  • yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of jaundice.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of hepatitis.

Getting the hepatitis vaccine or an injection of an antibody called immunoglobulin within two weeks of exposure to the hepatitis virus may protect you from infection.

Ask your health care provider or your local health department about receiving the hepatitis vaccine if:

  • You traveled recently to areas where the virus is common, particularly Mexico, Central America and South America or to areas with poor sanitation.
  • You ate at a restaurant with a hepatitis A outbreak
  • You live with someone who has hepatitis 
  • You recently had sexual contact with someone who has hepatitis 
  •  Practice good hygiene

Thoroughly wash your hands often, especially after using the toilet or changing a diaper and before preparing food or eating.

HOW HEPATITS IS DIAGNOSED

Hepatitis can be diagnosed by:

HISTROY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION:

To diagnose all forms of hepatitis, your doctor will first take your history to determine any risk factors you may have.

During a physical examination, your doctor may press down gently on your abdomen to see if there’s pain or tenderness. Your doctor may also check for any swelling of the liver and any yellow discoloration in your eyes or skin.

Liver function tests

Liver function tests use blood samples to determine how efficiently your liver works.

Other blood tests

Doctors may also use blood tests to check for any signs of autoimmune hepatitis.

Liver biopsy

A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a sample of tissue from your liver.

Abdominal ultrasound:

An abdominal ultrasound uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the organs within your abdomen. This test allows your doctor to take a close look at your liver and nearby organs. It can reveal:

  • fluid in your abdomen
  • liver damage or enlargement
  • liver tumors

How hepatitis is treated?

Treatment options will vary by the type of hepatitis you have and whether the infection is acute or chronic.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a short-term illness and may not require treatment. However, if symptoms cause a great deal of discomfort, vomiting or diarrhea, your doctor may recommend a dietary program to maintain your hydration and nutrition.

Hepatitis B

There is no specific treatment program for acute hepatitis B.

Treatment for chronic hepatitis B also requires regular medical evaluations.

Hepatitis C

Antiviral medications can treat both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis C.

Hepatitis D and E

Doctors will typically advise people with this infection to get adequate rest, drink plenty of fluids, get enough nutrients, and avoid alcohol. However, pregnant women who develop this infection require close monitoring and care.

Autoimmune hepatitis

Corticosteroids medicines, are extremely important in the early treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Azathioprine (Imuran), a drug that suppresses the immune system, may also be a part of treatment programs.

Tips to prevent hepatitis

There are vaccines that can help protect against many hepatitis viruses.

Vaccines

The hepatitis A vaccine is a series of two doses and most children begin vaccination at age 12 to 23 months. This is also available for adults and can also include the hepatitis B vaccine.

The vaccination against hepatitis B can also prevent hepatitis D.

There are currently no vaccines for hepatitis C or E.

Reducing exposure

Hepatitis viruses can transmit from person to person through contact with bodily fluids, water, and foods containing infectious agents. Minimizing your risk of contact with these substances can help to prevent contracting hepatitis viruses.

Practicing effective hygiene is one way to avoid contracting hepatitis A and E. The viruses that cause these conditions can be presented in water. If you’re traveling to a country where there is a high prevalence of hepatitis, you should avoid:

  • local water
  • ice
  • raw or undercooked shellfish and oysters
  • raw fruit and vegetables

The hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can transmit through contact with bodily fluids containing these infectious agents.

You can reduce your risk of coming into contact with fluids containing these viruses by:

  • not sharing needles
  • not sharing razors
  • not using someone else’s toothbrush
  • not touching spilled blood
  • Hepatitis B and C can carry through sexual intercourse and sexual contact.

Complications of hepatitis

Chronic hepatitis B or C can lead to more severe health problems. Because the virus affects the liver, people with chronic hepatitis B or C are at risk of:

  • chronic liver disease
  • inflammation of liver
  • liver cancer
  • When your liver stops functioning normally, liver failure can occur.

Complications of liver failure include:

  • bleeding disorders
  • a buildup of fluid in your abdomen, known as ascites.
  • increased blood pressure in portal veins that enter your liver, known as portal hypertension.
  • kidney failure
  • liver enlargement, which can involve fatigue, memory loss, and diminished mental abilities
  • death
  • People with chronic hepatitis B and C should avoid alcohol as it can accelerate liver disease and failure. Certain supplements and medications can also affect liver function. If you have chronic hepatitis B or C, check with your doctor before taking any new medications.

GENETAL SUPPORTIVE CARE:

General measures in all types of acute viral hepatitis include bed rest if the patient is very symptomatic, a high-calorie diet, avoidance of kiver toxic medications, and abstinence from alcohol with the anticipation that most patients will recover uneventfully

Thoroughly wash your hands often, especially after using the toilet or changing a diaper and before preparing food or eating.

Author

Zunera ejaz

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