High blood sugar level is a very common illness that every one is going through. Some have due to genetics because their parents have high sugar, some are facing due to organ defect that can not produce enough insulin and some due to high intake of sugar. This disease is called diabetes mellitus. Many children are born with diabetes this is not because they are taking high sugar, this is because their insulin can not get used properly.
To learn what is diabetes mellitus We should know what is glucose? and how it’s work? and what it’s disadvantage? when is the effect of increases or decreases of glucose in our body? to know all these effects first we have to look what is glucose?
What is glucose ?
Glucose is a sugar which is form by carbohydrate, that is basic need of our body. Carbohydrate makes the body work properly because it provides the instant energy to our body. Major part of our body system and specially the brain needs sugar as an energy fuel. If the body does not have enough sugar level, the body will go in starvation and our brain activities will be shutdown. In a same manner if the glucose concentration exceeded from the normal level, it also create defect in the body.
If that glucose level increases in our blood, it cause diabetic mellitus and if the level decrease, it cause the unconscious state of mind.
Glucose is provided to body by 2 sources first one is diet and the second one is liver ( organ of the body help to remove toxins from body and store extra amount of molecules in itself).
Types of Diabetes Mellitus
There are 2 types of diabetes named as:
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
It is a disease in which body destroy their own cells pancreas (beta cell) which releases insulin. So the insulin can not get releases, there is low amount of insulin and blood sugar level increased. It is not so common but can be seen in children and adults.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
It is a disease in which body cell do not respond to the insulin. The beta cells of pancreas are making normal amount of insulin but the body cells are unable to use. It is very common can occur in any age but especially seen in old ages. The people with older age get diabetes of this type.
There are other types of diabetes, lets have a view:
It occurs when blood sugar level are higher than normal but not that much high to consider as diabetes. It is also known as border line diabetes. Any little change in sugar level can cause diabetes.
It mostly seen in the pregnant woman. During the pregnancy some women may develop diabetes, but it goes away when baby is deliver.
There is a hormone name as aldosterone work on kidney to control excretion of water and minerals. when there is high secretion of hormone person feel like urination again and again, so it gives a symptom of diabetes, but it is not true diabetes
Diabetes symptoms depend on how high your blood sugar is. Some people, especially if they have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not have symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.
Some of the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are:
- Feeling more thirsty than usual.
- Losing weight without trying.
- Presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there’s not enough available insulin.
- Feeling tired and weak.
- Feeling irritable or having other mood changes.
- Having blurry vision.
- Having slow-healing sores.
- Getting a lot of infections, such as gum, skin and vaginal infections.
Type 1 diabetes can start at any age. But it often starts during childhood or teen years. Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age. Type 2 diabetes is more common in people older than 40.
when to see a doctor?
If you are suffering from diabetes, measure your sugar level daily. Make a followup in every 2 weeks. If your symptoms get worst have a immediate visit to the doctor. If you are feeling that your sugar level is beyond your control now, you can’t help it, than visit your doctor immediately because high blood sugar level can cause coma, heart attack and brain disease.
Causes of Diabetes MELLITUS
To know the causes of diabetes mellitus we should know how body sugar level is controlled by?
When we eat food, glucose is reabsorbed from food or taken from food by blood, and at that time it quantity increase in blood stream.
In extreme fasting condition, liver starts breakdown of storage form of glucose know as glucagon which is also taken up by blood and both of these condition cause high blood sugar level in blood.
In response to it body start releasing a hormone ( a chemical messengers which help to regulate the body functions properly) named as insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is release from pancreas (organ of body). Insulin help to control the glucose level by storing them into liver or by inhibiting liver to breakdown of store form of glucose.
If there is any problem occur in pancreas or pancreas can not secrete its hormone insulin properly, it causes the high blood sugar level and the high intake of sugar can not be stored into storage form glucagon. Other causes are smoking, inheritance (if any of the family members have), too much use of alcohol and high blood pressure.
Different causes are associated with each type of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes:
Doctors don’t know exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. For some reason, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
Genes may play a role in some people. It’s also possible that a virus sets off an immune system attack.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Having overweight or obesity increases your risk, too. Carrying extra weight, especially in your belly, makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.
This condition runs in families. Family members share genes that make them more likely to get type 2 diabetes and to be overweight.
Gestational diabetes occurs as the result of hormonal changes during pregnancy. The placenta produces hormones that make a pregnant person’s cells less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This can cause high blood sugar during pregnancy.
People who are overweight when they get pregnant or who gain too much weight during pregnancy are more likely to get gestational diabetes.
Factors that increase your risk differ depending on the type of diabetes you ultimately develop
Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes include:
- Having a family history (parent or sibling) of Type 1 diabetes.
- Injury to the pancreas (such as by infection, tumor, surgery or accident).
- Presence of auto antibodies (antibodies that mistakenly attack your own body’s tissues or organs).
- Physical stress (such as surgery or illness).
- Exposure to illnesses caused by viruses.
Risk factors for prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes include:
- Family history (parent or sibling) of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes.
- Being Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American race or Pacific Islander.
- Having overweight/obesity.
- Having high blood pressure
- Having low HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) and high triglyceride level.
- Being physically inactive.
- Being age 45 or older.
- Having gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.
- Having polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Having a history of heart disease or stroke.
- Being a smoker.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:
- Family history (parent or sibling) of prediabetes or
- Type 2 diabetes.
Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian-American.
- Having overweight/obesity before your pregnancy.
- Being over 25 years of age.
Complications will increase with time especially in those who do not take care of themselves. It can get severe if the person is not following the preventive measures. They can lead to life threading situation some of the complications are:
Heart and blood vessel disease ( it cause narrowing of artery termed as atherosclerosis, heart attack, chest pain )
Nerve damage High sugar level destroy the blood vessels especially small blood vessels which supply the nerves especially in the area of the leg. This cause burning or pain that usually begin in the front of the toe or fingers It also sometimes lose the sensation of pain and touch due to damage of nerve some of nerve damage cause abdominal problem
Kidney damage It is rich of blood vessels cluster which help in filtration diabetes can damage this cluster.
Eye damage it can damage blood vessels of eye so it can cause blindness.
Foot damage nerve damage in feet and poor blood flow in foot cause consequence of foot damage.
Skin and mouth problem Diabetes cause dry mouth and prone to skin problem.
Hearing problem are in diabetes patient.
Alzheimer Disease Type 2 increase risk to Alzheimer disease.
Type 1 diabetes can’t be prevented. But the healthy lifestyle choices that help treat prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can also help prevent them:
- Eat healthy foods. Choose foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fibre.
- Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Eat a variety to keep from feeling bored.
- Get more physical activity.
- Try to get about 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity on most days of the week. Or aim to get at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity a week. For example, take a brisk daily walk. If you can’t fit in a long workout, break it up into smaller sessions throughout the day.
- Lose excess pounds. If you’re overweight, losing even 7% of your body weight can lower the risk of diabetes. For example, if you weigh 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms), losing 14 pounds (6.4 kilograms) can lower the risk of diabetes.
- But don’t try to lose weight during pregnancy. Talk to your provider about how much weight is healthy for you to gain during pregnancy.
- To keep your weight in a healthy range, work on long-term changes to your eating and exercise habits. Remember the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and higher self-esteem.
How blood sugar level is measured at home?
If a person has high blood sugar level he should know how to measure blood sugar at home There is a device named glucometer a strip is placed in glucometer then fingers is pricked by needle and placed drop of blood in strip the glucometer given reading
If a person having prediabetes than what should he do
If a person is in a border line of diabetes or having a condition of prediabetes he should take care of his health should not use food that is high contain of sugar just like sweets he should take exercise daily he should use low cholesterol food and do regular test of his blood sugar
If person have high sugar level then what should you do
Diabetes treatment include checking of glucose level, glucose can be measured by glucometer, dietary management, maintaining physical activity weight and stress under control , monitoring oral medication if required, use insulin injection The injection of the insulin is injected in the area below the belly button region in a clockwise pattern and in children injection is injected in the inner side of thigh
To know if the blood sugar level increase or decrease we should know about the normal values of it
Fasting sugar level or when a person not taking food at that time sugar level must be with in 80 to 100
Random blood sugar or when a person taking food the sugar level must be 200 or below it
Prediabetes if the sugar level is in between 100 to 136
Diabetes when blood Sugar level Is more than 136
Severe diabetes is when sugar level is more than 200.
General supportive care:
Make a commitment to managing your diabetes
Members of your diabetes care team — primary care provider, diabetes care and education specialist, and dietitian, for example — can help you learn the basics of diabetes care and offer support along the way. But it’s up to you to manage your condition.
Learn all you can about diabetes. Make healthy eating and physical activity part of your daily routine. Maintain a healthy weight.
Monitor your blood sugar, and follow your health care provider’s instructions for managing your blood sugar level. Take your medications as directed by your health care provider. Ask your diabetes treatment team for help when you need it.
Avoid smoking or quit smoking if you smoke. Smoking increases your risk of type 2 diabetes and the risk of various diabetes complications, including:
Reduced blood flow in the legs and feet, which can lead to infections, non healing ulcers and possible amputation.
Worse blood sugar control
Eye disease, which can lead to blindness
Talk to your health care provider about ways to help you stop smoking or using other types of tobacco.
Keep your vaccines up to date.
Take care of your teeth
Diabetes may leave you prone to gum infections. Brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste, floss your teeth once a day and schedule dental exams at least twice a year. Call your dentist if your gums bleed or look red or swollen.
Pay attention to your feet
High blood sugar can reduce blood flow and damage the nerves in your feet. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can lead to serious infections. Diabetes can lead to pain, tingling or loss of sensation in your feet.
Wash your feet daily in lukewarm water. Avoid soaking your feet, as this can lead to dry skin.
Dry your feet gently, especially between the toes.
Moisturize your feet and ankles with lotion or petroleum jelly. Do not put oils or creams between your toes — the extra moisture can lead to infection.
Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that doesn’t start to heal within a few days. If you have a foot ulcer — an open sore — see your doctor right away.
Don’t go barefoot, indoors or outdoors.
If you’re stressed, it’s easy to neglect your usual diabetes care routine. To manage your stress, set limits. Prioritise your tasks. Learn relaxation techniques.
Get plenty of sleep. And above all, stay positive. Diabetes care is within your control. If you’re willing to do your part, diabetes won’t stand in the way of an active, healthy life.