Short height is due to not well development of bone it may b due to vitamin low intake calcium malnutrition ( no intake of calcium in food) and hormonal problem. Hormone are the chemical messengers that regulates body height .The hormone responsible for body height is growth hormone that release from pituitary gland( part of the brain) . When the hormones is not secreted from pituitary gland it cause small height called dwarfism.
Def: Dwarfism is short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition. In which growth hormone is not release . It cause abnormal or retarded growth of bone. Due to which height remain short. For rest of life if not treated.
Pituitary gland is a gland located in our brain responsible for secretion of many hormones. When the growth hormone released from pituitary gland are not release due to any reason such as trauma or blockage in pituitary gland result in less concentration of growth hormone due to which our body bone not get proper growth.
Factors Determining Dwarfism:
It is generally determining by three sets :
- Genetic (hereditary)
A condition in which the gene inherited from parents that also have short stature due to which it effects the child .
A condition in which proper diet that does not contain proper nutritious like magnesium, sodium, potassium etc. play a primary role in poor linear growth and delayed development.
A condition caused by insufficient amounts of growth hormone in the body.
Types of Dwarfism:
The dwarfism have several types such as
The most common form of dwarfism is characterized by short limbs( hand and feet) and a prominent forehead.
It is a form of short-limbed dwarfism.
It is caused by a growth hormone deficiency. It effects the whole body.
A form of dwarfism where a small body size occurs during all stages of life, even before birth.
It causes very short limbs along with a narrow chest.
The characteristics feature of dwarfism are
- Adult height < 4 feet 10 inches (147 cm).
- Kids with a slow growth rate, < 2 inches every year, which appears only after they are 2-3 years old.
- GH deficiency may be present in children with physical defects such as cleft lip or cleft palate.( abnormal closure of lips plate).
- There may be abnormal bone development.
- There may be restricted lung growth and reduced lung function.
- Symptoms of dwarfism
As discussed earlier dwarfism is short height problem the symptoms shown is
- An average size trunk.
- Short limbs especially short upper limb and upper lower limb.
- Short fingers.
- Limited movement.
- Large head with prominent forehead.
- Progressive development of bowed leg ( leg disorder in which leg directed outward instead keep in line.)
- Instability of neck.
- Hip deformity.
- Hearing and vision problems.
- Joints problem.
Causes of Dwarfism
Most dwarfism-related conditions are genetic disorders, but the causes of some disorders are unknown.
Growth hormone deficiency
The cause of growth hormone deficiency can sometimes be traced to a genetic mutation or injury, but for most people with the disorder, no cause can be identified.
Tumor of pituitary
The pituitary gland responsible for secretion of growth hormone if there is abnormal growth in this gland it most probably over secret the hormones but sometimes responsible for the suppression of hormones.
Development disorder of pituitary gland
The pituitary gland abnormal development or absence of gland lead to no secretion of growth hormone results in dwarfism.
Other causes of dwarfism include other genetic disorders, deficiencies in other hormones or poor nutrition. Sometimes the cause is unknown.
The most common complication of dwarfism are
- Delays in motor skills development, such as sitting up, crawling and walking.
- Bowing of the legs.( Leg directed outward).
- Difficulty breathing during sleep (sleep apnea).
- Pressure on the spinal cord at the base of the skull.
- Joint pain.
There is nothing a parent could do before or during pregnancy to prevent this change from happening. A genetic counselor can help determine the chances having a child with dwarfism.
Interventions and Treatments:
Treatment of dwarfism can be done by
Treatment involves the administration of growth hormone injections once every day or many times per week. The may cause some effect . The common effects are:
- Accumulation of water in body
- Muscle and joint pain.
A disability could also be treated by different physical therapies or even by possible surgery..
Surgical procedures that may correct problems in people with dwarfism include
- Correcting the direction in which bones are growing.
- Stabilizing and correcting the shape of the spine.
- Increasing the size of the opening in bones of the spine (vertebrae) to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord.
- Placing a shunt to remove excess fluid around the brain (hydrocephalus), if it occurs.
General Health Care:
For individuals with dwarfism due to growth hormone deficiency, treatment with injections of a synthetic version of the hormone may increase final height. In most cases, children receive daily injections for several years until they reach a maximum adult height — often within the average adult range for their family.
Regular checkups and ongoing care by a doctor familiar with dwarfism can improve quality of life. Because of the range of symptoms and complications, treatments are tailored to address problems as they occur, such as treatment for ear infections or sleep apnea.
Adults with dwarfism should continue to be monitored and treated for problems that occur throughout life.